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Mineral resources of Poland> Rock raw materials and others> Refractory clays
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Refractory clays

Kaolinite clays called as refractory clays are an indispensable raw material for production of aluminosilicate fire resistant materials. They are also used for production of ceramic tiles and sanitary articles. Such clays originate in result of wash down of outcropping and near-surface kaolinized rocks and redeposition of kaolinite, connected with separation of quartz grains and marked improvement of fire resistance properties of that raw material.

Kaolinite clays are characterized by high plasticity and when fired at temperatures over 1,500oC they form ceramic bodies with high mechanical strength. Very low content of calcium and magnesium compounds is very advantageous as it results in a rise of melting point of these clays. In turn, presence of iron compounds results in yellow to brownish and red color of the refractory clays.

The single exploited deposits of refractory clays (Rusko-Jaroszów deposit), is situated in the Lower Silesian region.

Refractory clays deposits are presented on the map.

Table 1 shows the current state of exploration and development of the fireproof clay resources.

Anticipated economic resources amounted to 54.36 million tonnes in 2015 and decreased by 0.11 million tonnes in comparison with 2014 due to the exploitation from Rusko-Jaroszów deposit (0.09 million tonnes) and crossing Czerwona Woda deposit out from “The balance…” (0.02 million tonnes).

Anticipated economic resources covered by the detailed exploration (in A, B, C1 categories) were equal 53.68 million tonnes and accounted for 98.8% of total anticipated economic resources.

Economic resources were equal 1.65 million tonnes (3% of total anticipated economic resources and 61.6% of anticipated economic resources within exploited deposits).

In 2015 production of refractory clays was equal 87 thousand tonnes and increased by 4 thousand tonnes (4.8%) in comparison with the previous year (table 2). The exploited raw material may be used without any processing or after firing, as the so-called “fired clays”.

PGE Górnictwo i Energetyka Konwencjonalna SA (PGE GiEK SA) informed that the exploitation of refractory and ceramic clays from non-documented deposits (so-called exploitation points) in the KWB Turów Mining Plant amounted in 2015 to 4.08 thousand tonnes.

Prepared by: Marcin Tymiński