Clay raw materials for cement production
Clay raw materials are used to provide alumina and silica to the charge for the cement kiln and thus counterbalance too high content of CaCO3 in limestones and marls. The optimum content of CaCO3 in the kiln charge is 75-80 %. When CaCO3 exceeds these values, clays are added to reduce its content at the advantage of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3.
The advancements in development and current exploitation of these raw materials are relatively low. This is due to two factors: (1) attempts to achieve the optimum composition of mined major raw material (in this case – limestones and marls) and, in this way, to diminish the problems with its correction, usually made by the operators at the development stage, that is at the stage of works performed to open a mineral deposit for exploitation, and (2) replacement of natural clay raw materials with mineral waste raw materials such as ash from heat and power plants, blast furnace slag and similar ones.
Lithologically the explored deposits of raw materials for the cement industry represent loams, clays, clay siderites, loesses and silts.
Anticipated economic resources of proved clay raw material deposits for the cement industry increased in 2010 by 63.70 million tonnes (in comparison with 2009) and were reported to be 283.77 million tonnes.
Deposits of clay raw materials for cement production (together with building ceramics raw materials) are presented on the map.
There was new deposits „Lechówka 104/1” documented in 2010 - with anticipated economic resources estimated on 79.92 thousand tonnes. Clay is cooccurring in the deposit with sand clasified as natural aggregates.
Exploitation is carrying on only in lubelskie voivodeship area. In 2010 output amounted to 132 thousand tonnes and increased by 16 % in comparison with 2009.
The Kujawy cement plant also uses sands from the Barcin-Piechcin-Pakość deposit (Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship), which is placed in the chapter "Quartz sands for production of cellural concrete and lime-sand brick" (classification according to the geological documentation).
- B - for solid minerals - mine in building process, for fuels - prepared for exploitation or trial period of the exploitation
- E - exploited
- G - underground natural gas storage facilities
- M - deposit crossed out of the annual report of mineral resources during analized period
- P - deposit covered by preliminary exploration (in C2+D category, for fuels – in C category)
- R - deposit covered by detailed exploration (in A+B+C1 category, for fuels – in A+B category)
- Z - abandoned deposit
- T - deposit exploited temporarily
- K - change of the raw material in deposit
Prapared by: Wojciech Szczygielski