In Poland, chalk is the name traditionally given to two different mineral raw materials: lacustrine chalk (calcareous tufa) and proper chalk rock (still often called as”writing chalk” in Polish literature). The raw materials differ in origin and chemical composition and use.
Lacustrine chalk, also known as „meadow limestone” or „lacustrine limestone”, is a calcareous sediment of the Quaternary age, associated mainly with post-lacustrine series formed in times of the Last Glaciation. It is used in agriculture as calcareous fertilizer. Accumulations of lacustrine chalk occur mainly in northern and north-western Poland, often at the base of deposits of peat and calcareous gyttja. Chalk deposits occurence is presented on the map.
Chalk is a weakly coherent and porous limestone rock, mainly used in the manufacture of rubber, paper, chemicals, dyes and cement. Cretaceous limestones of the chalk type used in production of cement (Chełm deposit) are discussed in the section dealing with limestone and marl raw material of the cement industry. Chalk deposits found in north-eastern Poland are related to erratics of Cretaceous chalk embedded in Quaternary glacial sediments (for example, the Mielnik and Kornica deposits).
The table 1 given below shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of chalk.
In 2010, production of chalk sharply decreased by 48 thousand tonnes down to 75.6 thousand tonnes.
The figure given below shows changes in domestic resources and production of chalk in Poland in the years 1989-2010.
Chalk is imported due to low quality of domestic raw material and the lack of efficient methods for its processing. In 2010, import of chalk was equal 91.86 thousand tonnes and worth PLN 20.9 million. In turn, lacustrine chalk remains a non-traded commodity.
- B - for solid minerals - mine in building process, for fuels - prepared for exploitation or trial period of the exploitation
- E - exploited
- G - underground natural gas storage facilities
- M - deposit crossed out of the annual report of mineral resources during analized period
- P - deposit covered by preliminary exploration (in C2+D category, for fuels – in C category)
- R - deposit covered by detailed exploration (in A+B+C1 category, for fuels – in A+B category)
- Z - abandoned deposit
- T - deposit exploited temporarily
- K - change of the raw material in deposit
Prepared by: Janina Dyląg