In Poland, chalk is the name traditionally given to two different mineral raw materials: lacustrine chalk (calcareous tufa) and proper chalk rock (still often called as”writing chalk” in Polish literature). The raw materials differ in origin and chemical composition and use.
Lacustrine chalk, also known as „meadow limestone” or „lacustrine limestone”, is a calcareous sediment of the Quaternary age, associated mainly with post-lacustrine series formed in times of the Last Glaciation. It is used in agriculture as calcareous fertilizer. Accumulations of lacustrine chalk occur mainly in northern and north-western Poland, often at the base of deposits of peat and calcareous gyttja. Chalk deposits occurence is presented on the map.
Chalk is a weakly coherent and porous limestone rock, mainly used in the manufacture of rubber, paper, chemicals, dyes and cement. Cretaceous limestones of the chalk type used in production of cement (Chełm deposit) are discussed in the section dealing with limestone and marl raw material of the cement industry. Chalk deposits found in north-eastern Poland are related to erratics of Cretaceous chalk embedded in Quaternary glacial sediments (for example, the Mielnik and Kornica deposits).
Chalk deposits are being documented to the depth of 10 meters, with minimum deposit thickness of 1 meter, maximum overburden of 2.5 meters, maximum ratio of overburden to deposit thickness of 0.3 and minimum alkalinity (CaO) of 40 %.
The table 1 given below shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of chalk.
Anticipated economic resources of chalk in 2011 amounted to 199.16 million tonnes and increased by 283 thousand tonnes in comparison with the previous year. There was new Koszelówka II deposits documented (with resources of 710 thousand tonnes). Three deposits were crossed out of the “Annual report…”: Trzebielino, Kolonia Wólka Nosowska II and Rudowo.
In 2011, production of chalk sharply increased by 52 thousand tonnes to 128 thousand tonnes. Lacustrine chalk production amounted to 16 thousand tonnes and writing chalk to 112 thousand tones (74 thousand tonnes from Mielnik deposit).
The figure given below shows changes in domestic resources and production of chalk in Poland in the years 1989-2011.
Prepared by: Agnieszka Wałkuska