Mineral resources of Poland> Rock raw materials and others> Flintstones
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Flintstones are silica concretion balls of the spherical, oval or irregular shape, clearly elicited from ambient rocks. They occur mostly as so-called flint banks in carbonate rocks (chalk, limestones, marls) mainly of the Jurassic (the Zakrzówek, Julianka and Siedlec queries) and Cretaceous (the Janików, Karsy, Mielnik and Kornica queries) ages. Sometimes they are concentrated in the form of bars (the Karsy query near Inowłodz and hornfels in the Carpathians, e.g.: Leszczawa Górna and Hyżne). The main component of the flintstones concretions is chalcedony. Very similar to flintstones are cherts, nevertheless they are not clearly elicited from ambient rocks. In view of their weathering resilience, the flintstones often occur in secondary accumulations as a component of loose clastic sediments. The Quarternary flintstones occur in the form of boulder fields e.g. in the vicinities of Krzeszowice or Jastrzębie near Radom. Larger flintstones accumulations were identified in some boiler karsts, e.g. in Kuźle near Złoty Potok and in Wolica near Kielce.

Ground flintstones are used in the glass, ceramic and enameller industries. They are also used for the production of facings, millstones for rolling mills and flint abrasives. Ground flintstones are also used in the abrasive materials industry, for the production of loose abrasives and abrasive papers.

Striped flintstones are used as fancy stones, for making jewelry and stone fancy products. The most famous accumulation of striped flinstones is Krzemionki Opatowskie, located near Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, where flintstones were intensively extracted already in the Neolithic period (3,500-1,600 BC) from the Upper Oxfordian limestones. Equally important for the archeology are so-called “chocolate” flintstones of which the biggest accumulations and places of exploitation are located in the area of Gliniany, Iłża, Tomaszów and Wierzbica. In Orońsko near Radom, there was one of the oldest sites of Paleolithic mining and “chocolate” flintstones processing in Europe discovered. It is dated at about 12,800 years old.

There are two documented deposits of flintstones in the Holy Cross Mts. (Bocheniec and Tokarnia). In Bocheniec redeposited flintstones originate from the Kimmeridgian limestones and decorative versions of flintstones account for 30% at the average. In Tokarnia the striped fancy flintstones occur. Due to the finished building of the rode node “Tokarnia” within the expressway S7 on the section Chęciny-Jędrzejów, the possibility of making the south-eastern part of the deposit available was significantly limited.

Nowadays, none of these deposits is being exploited. The anticipated economic resource have not changed in comparison with 2021 and amounted to 27.70 thousand tonnes (Table 1).

Prepared by: Dariusz Brzeziński