Quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick
Sands are widely used in production of cellular concrete and bricks and sand lime blocks in the whole area of Poland. Raw material suitable for that production has to be sufficiently pure and fine-grained and well sorted. These requirements are met by Quaternary sands of glacial and fluvioglacial origin and river and eolian sands. Sands most suitable for these purposes include mainly fluvioglacial and eolian sands characterized by high silica content, good grains segregation (the content of 0.05 – 0.5 mm grains should exceed 65 %), high degree of roundness of grains and low content of extraneous matter.
According to the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of the 22nd of December 2011 (number of Polish act: Dz. U. Nr 291, poz. 1712.), exploitable quartz sand deposits require a minimum content of quartz grains (90 %), maximum content of silts (5 %), thickness not smaller than 2 m and the ratio of cover to deposit series not higher than 0.5.
It should be stated that accuracy of prospecting and exploration of these sand deposits has been satisfactory. The deposits are fairly evenly distributed throughout the whole area of the country, except for the Carpathian Mts. In the latter region, resources of sand deposits (especially quartz sands of good quality) appear clearly insufficient to cover the local needs.
Clastic rock raw materials occurrence in Poland (inlcuding quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick) is presented on the map.
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete.
Anticipated economic resources of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete amounted to 144.08 million m3 (259.34 million tonnes), decreased by 0.34 million m3 in comparison with previous year.
Anticipated economic resources within deposits covered by detailed exploration amounted to 54.62 million m3 account for 37.91 % of total resources and resources within exploited deposits amounted to 34.10 million m3 (23.67 % of total resources).
Economic resources within exploited deposits amounted to 18.85 million m3 (55.7 % of total anticipated economic resources).
Production of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete totaled 334 thousand m3, being 21 thousand m3 lower than in the previous year. The exploitation of Przygody deposit (Mazowieckie Voivodeship) was started in 2013 whereas the exploiation of Łozienica (Kliniska) deposit located in Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship was stopped.
Table 2 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of lime-sand brick.
Anticipated economic resources of these sands decreased by 1.86 million m3 and amounted to 268.63 million m3 (483.53 million tonnes). There were two deposits crossed out of “The balance…”: Godzikowice deposit, with remaining resources equal 450 thousand tonnes, located in Dolnośląskie Voivodeship; Wasilków-Białystok deposit (Podlaskie Voivodeship) with resources equal 290.99 thousand tonnes. There were two recalculations of resources made and accepted for one already documented deposit – Żytkowice (Mazowieckie Voivodeship).
Anticipated economic resources within deposits covered by detailed exploration are equal 141.43 million m3 and account for 52.6 % of total resources. There are 44.18 million m3 within exploited deposits that account for 16.4 % of total resources. Economic resources within exploited deposits amounted to 18.48 million m3 (41.8 % of total anticipated economic resources).
In 2013, production of these quartz sands decreased by 212 thousand m3 and amounted to 519 thousand m3. The exploitation of Teodory II deposit (Mazowieckie Voivodeship) was stopped in 2013 and there were significant drops in the volume of raw material exploited from Wieliszew I and Żabinko deposits.
Total anticipated economic resources of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick amounted in 2013 to 412.71 million m3 (742.88 million tonnes).
Figure 1 shows changes in resources and production of quartz sands for the manufacture of cellular concrete and Figure 2 – the same data for quartz sands for the manufacture of lime-sand brick.
Prepared by: Agnieszka Malon