Quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick
Sands are widely used in production of cellular concrete and bricks and sand lime blocks in the whole area of Poland. Raw material suitable for that production has to be sufficiently pure and fine-grained and well sorted. These requirements are met by Quaternary sands of glacial and fluvioglacial origin and river and eolian sands. Sands most suitable for these purposes include mainly fluvioglacial and eolian sands characterized by high silica content, good grains segregation (the content of 0.05 – 0.5 mm grains should exceed 65 %), high degree of roundness of grains and low content of extraneous matter.
According to the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of the 22nd of December 2011 (number of Polish act: Dz. U. Nr 291, poz. 1712.), exploitable quartz sand deposits require a minimum content of quartz grains (90 %), maximum content of silts (5 %), thickness not smaller than 2 m and the ratio of cover to deposit series not higher than 0.5.
It should be stated that accuracy of prospecting and exploration of these sand deposits has been satisfactory. The deposits are fairly evenly distributed throughout the whole area of the country, except for the Carpathian Mts. In the latter region, resources of sand deposits (especially quartz sands of good quality) appear clearly insufficient to cover the local needs.
Clastic rock raw materials occurrence in Poland (inlcuding quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick) is presented on the map.
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete.
Anticipated economic resources of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete amounted to 143.83 million m3 (258.89 million tonnes – recalculated according to 1.8 factor), decreased by 0.25 million 3 in comparison with previous year. There were two reasons for this drop – exploitation and losses. The only deposit with resources growth was Sułów where new documentation with recalculated resources (due to exploitation ending) was approved.
Anticipated economic resources within deposits covered by detailed exploration amounted to 54.43 million m3 and account for 37.84 % of total resources and resources within exploited deposits amounted to 33.35 million m3 (23.19 % of total resources).
Economic resources within exploited deposits amounted to 18.11 million m3 (54.3 % of total anticipated economic resources).
Production of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete decreased in comparison with the previous year by 15 thousand m3 and totaled 319 thousand m3 (574 thousand tonnes). The exploitation of Sułów deposit located in Dolnośląskie Voivodeship and Przygody deposit in Mazowieckie Voivodeship was stopped.
Table 2 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of lime-sand brick.
Anticipated economic resources of these sands increased by 3.29 million m3 and amounted to 271.92 million m3 (489.46 million tonnes). There was ne deposit documented in 2014 – Łękno JP located in Wielkopolskie Voivodeship (+4,372 thousand m3). Łękno deposit has been presenting in “The balance…” as sand and gravel deposit so far. However, the occurrence of quartz sands was also documented in the deposit and new documentation with two raw materials prepared. The resources growth was slightly reduced by exploitation and losses (-576 thousand m3) and by recalculated resources approved in new documentation prepared for Buczek Mały-Czyżkowo deposit (-460 thousand m3).
Anticipated economic resources within deposits covered by detailed exploration are equal 142.87 million m3 and account for 52.5 % of total resources. There are 43.21 million m3 within exploited deposits that account for 15.9 % of total resources. Economic resources within exploited deposits amounted to 15.64 million m3 (36.2 % of total anticipated economic resources).
In 2014, production of these quartz sands increased by 58 thousand m3 and amounted to 577 thousand m3. The exploitation of Jedlanka II deposit (Lubelskie Voivodeship), Grabowo-Kruki and Wieliszew I deposits (both of them located in Mazowieckie Voivodeship) was stopped in 2014 and the production from Teodory II deposit (Łódzkie Voviodeship) was started again.
Total anticipated economic resources of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick amounted in 2014 to 415.75 million m3 (748.35 million tonnes).
Figure 1 shows changes in resources and production of quartz sands for the manufacture of cellular concrete and Figure 2 – the same data for quartz sands for the manufacture of lime-sand brick.
Prepared by: Agnieszka Malon