Quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick
Sands are widely used in production of cellular concrete and bricks and sand lime blocks in the whole area of Poland. Raw material suitable for that production has to be sufficiently pure, fine-grained and well sorted. These requirements are met by Quaternary sands of glacial and fluvioglacial origin and river and eolian sands. Sands most suitable for these purposes include mainly fluvioglacial and eolian sands characterized by high silica content, good grains segregation (the content of 0.05–0.5 mm grains should exceed 65%), high degree of roundness of grains and low content of extraneous matter.
According to the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of the 1st of July 2015, exploitable quartz sand deposits require a minimum content of quartz grains (90%), maximum content of silts (5%), thickness not smaller than 2 m and the ratio of cover to deposit series not higher than 0.5.
It should be stated that accuracy of prospecting and exploration of these sand deposits has been satisfactory. The deposits are fairly evenly distributed throughout the whole area of the country, except for the Carpathian Mts. In the latter region, resources of sand deposits (especially quartz sands of good quality) appear clearly insufficient to cover the local needs.
Clastic rock raw materials occurrence in Poland (including quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick) is presented on the map.
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete.
Anticipated economic resources of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete amounted to 143.27 million m3 (257.89 million tonnes – recalculated according to 1.8 factor), decreased by 0.56 million m3 in comparison with the previous year. The reasons for this drop were exploitation, losses (0.36 million m3) and crossing Wola Suchożebrska deposit out from “The balance…” (0.20 million m3).
Anticipated economic resources within deposits covered by detailed exploration amounted to 53.98 million m3 and accounted for 37.68% of total resources and resources within exploited deposits amounted to 30.19 million m3 (21.07% of total resources).
Economic resources within exploited deposits amounted to 17.52 million m3 (58.03% of total anticipated economic resources).
Production of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete increased in comparison with the previous year by 42.55 thousand m3 and totaled 361.43 thousand m3 (650.57 thousand tonnes). The exploitation of Niegocin II deposit located in Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship was stopped and the exploitation from Przygody deposit in Mazowieckie Voivodeship is still on hold.
Table 2 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of lime-sand brick.
Anticipated economic resources of sands for production of lime-sand brick decreased by 0.66 million m3 due to the exploitation and losses and amounted to 271.26 million m3 (488.27 million tonnes).
Anticipated economic resources within deposits covered by detailed exploration are equal 142.21 million m3 and account for 52.4% of total resources. There are 42.51 million m3 within exploited deposits that account for 15.7% of total resources. Economic resources within exploited deposits amounted to 15.28 million m3 (35.94% of total anticipated economic resources).
In 2015, production of these quartz sands increased by 45 thousand m3 and amounted to 622 thousand m3. The exploitation of Jedlanka II deposit (Lubelskie Voivodeship), Grabowo-Kruki and Grabowo-Kruki II deposits (Mazowieckie Voivodeship) started again in 2015. Nevertheless, the exploitation from Czostków (Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship) and Żytkowice 2 deposits (Mazowieckie Voivodeship) was stopped in 2015.
Total anticipated economic resources of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick amounted in 2015 to 414.53 million m3 (746.15 million tonnes).
Figure 1 shows changes in resources and production of quartz sands for the manufacture of cellular concrete and Figure 2 – the same data for quartz sands for the manufacture of lime-sand brick.
Prepared by: Agnieszka Malon