Glass sands and sandstones
Quartz sand is the main raw material in commercial glass production. In that process, raw materials pass through preparation and mixing in the glass batch to be transported to the furnace and melted. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight (72% in the case of the float glass). Sand for glass production comes from deposits of quartz sands and weakly cemented quartz sandstones with appropriate granulation and negligible content of coloring oxides.
In Poland, deposits of sands and sandstones suitable for glass production occur in 10 voivodeships: Dolnośląskie (Bolesławiec area), Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Łódzkie (vicinities of Tomaszowa Mazowiecki), Mazowieckie, Podkarpackie, Pomorskie, Świętokrzyskie, Wielkopolskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodeships. Resources of the Biała Góra deposit from the vicinities of Tomaszów Mazowiecki have the largest share in domestic base of glass sand resources. In turn, sands from the vicinities of Bolesławiec best match quality requirements of raw material for glass production.
Miocene glass sand deposits from the area of Tarnobrzeg and sands occurring in the Lubelskie, Lubuskie (vicinities of Żary), Mazowieckie, Podkarpackie, Pomorskie, Wielkopolskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodeships are less important for the raw material base. The deposits mainly comprise raw material of the Miocene or Quaternary age which is suitable for production of a low-quality glass only (class 3-6).
Clastic rock raw materials occurence in Poland (inlcuding glass sands and sandstones) is presented on the map
The table given below shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of domestic sand glass deposits.
In 2010, glass sand production increased and was equal 1.995 million tonnes.
Anticipated economic resources of exploited deposits are equal 208.05 million tonnes, accounting for 32.7 % of total anticipated economic resources.
- B - for solid minerals - mine in building process, for fuels - prepared for exploitation or trial period of the exploitation
- E - exploited
- G - underground natural gas storage facilities
- M - deposit crossed out of the annual report of mineral resources during analized period
- P - deposit covered by preliminary exploration (in C2+D category, for fuels – in C category)
- R - deposit covered by detailed exploration (in A+B+C1 category, for fuels – in A+B category)
- Z - abandoned deposit
- T - deposit exploited temporarily
- K - change of the raw material in deposit
Prepared by: Agnieszka Malon