Limestones and marls for cement and lime industries
This section deals with deposits of limestones and marls exploited for use in lime and cement industries. Hard varieties of limestone used in production of dimension and crushed stones are discussed in a separate section, similarly as lacustrine limestone (lacustrine chalk) and proper chalk raw material used in industries other than the cement and lime ones.
Limestones used as raw material in the lime industry are pure limestones with high content of CaCO3 (>90 %). Some types of limestones – meeting additional (mainly chemical) criteria – are also used in chemical, iron and steel and sugar industries. When used in the manufacture of cement clinker, they should be supplemented with addition of clay raw materials. Marly limestones and marls are useful in the cement industry and the CaCO3 content can be lower than 80 % but other chemical ingredients contents are quite important.
Limestones and marl raw materials for the cement and lime industries are quite common in various geological formations in southern and central Poland and some other regions. Almost 60 % of documented resources are of Jurrasic age. Quite important are also Devonian, Triassic and Cretaceous limestones. Most resources occur within four regions: świętokrzyski, krakowsko-częstochowsko-wieluński, lubelski and opolski. In northern Poland Jurassic limestones were documented within the Barcin-Piechcin area near Inowrocław.
Anticipated economic resources of limestones and marls amounted in 2014 to 18,424.30 million tonnes including 12,833.47 million tonnes (69.7 %) within 70 deposits for cement industry and 5,590.83 million tonnes (30.3 %) within 120 deposits for lime industry.
In 2014, the anticipated economic resources of limestones and marls for cement industry increased by 38.79 million tonnes in comparison with the previous year. The number of deposits has not changed since 2013 but there were new boundaries and recalculated resources approved for Chełm (+26.90 million tonnes), Bukowa (+19.56 million tonnes), Leśnica Małogoszcz (+12.43 million tonnes) and Niwiska Górne-Grądy (+5.73 million tonnes) – total increase by 64.62 million tonnes. Resources decrease due to the output (-24.80 million tonnes) and losses (-1.21 million tonnes).
The anticipated economic resources of limestones for lime industry decreased by 50.10 million tonnes due to the changes within deposit boundaries and recalculation of resources for Anna, Bukowa, Łagów and Pajęczno deposits (-40.68 million tonnes), the output (-16.56 million tonnes), crossing out of “The balance…” Gnieździska-Góra Lipia and Rciborowice deposits (-1.71 million tonnes). There were also two new deposits documented in 2014 – Patoki and Wapiennik Lisowice II (+7.28 million tonnes).
Limestones and marls for cement industry deposits are presented on the map.
The anticipated economic resources of exploited deposits (deposits of operating mines and deposits exploited temporarily) states for 33.8 % of total resources for cement industry and 33.7 % of total resources for lime industry.
Production of these raw materials is concentrated within three Voivodeships: - Świętokrzyskie (accounts for 42.7 % of domestic production), - Opolskie (21.2 %); - Kujawsko-pomorskie (15.2 %). Production of both raw materials amounted to 41.36 million tonnes in 2014 (increased by 2.28 million tonnes – 2.54 million tonnes production growth of raw materials for cement industry and 0.25 million tonnes drop of production of limestones for lime industry).
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of limestone and marl deposits explored for the needs of cement industry and Table 2 for lime industry.
The figure given below shows changes in resources and production of limestones and marls for the cement and lime industries in Poland in the years 1989-2014.
In a couple of deposits (Bratkowszczyzna, Bukowa, Gliniany-Stróża, Górażdże, Kodrąb-Dmenin, Krasocin, Strzelce Opolskie I and Tarnów Opolski-Wschód) both types of raw material occur.
Prepared by: Dariusz Brzeziński