Exports and imports of mineral raw materials
Information on the trade turnover in exports and imports of raw materials in Poland are prepared according to Combined Nomenclature (CN), which is deeply connected with the international classification system named Harmonized System - HS. Combined Nomenclature is the obligatory one in Polish Customs Tariff since 1991. The Combined Nomenclature is the part of the Integrated Tariff of the European Communities (TARIC) which was established by virtue of Article 2 of Council Regulation (EEC) No 2658/87 of 23 July 1987 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common Customs Tariff. Regulation (EC) No 1789/2003 of 11 October 2003 amended the Regulation mentioned above. The Regulation established in 2003 is the obligatory one in Poland since the 1st of May 2004.
In 2010 summary statistic for minerals and mineral commodities in Poland was presented in four groups: fuels, metals, chemicals and rocks. The total volume and value of imports-exports of the raw materials as well as for the particular groups of raw materials are presented in Table 1.
The data on raw materials turnover in 2006-2010 do not cover natural gas. Data on natural gas export and import are not available since 2006 due to the confidentiality of the information – according to the Regulation (EC) No 638/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on Community statistics relating to the trading of goods between Member States and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 3330/91. Natural gas export in Poland amounts only to dozens mln m3 annualy and the lack of data does not affect the total balance of raw materials turnover. The lack of data on natural gas import to Poland (about 6-7 billion m3 with total value of PLN 5-6 billion) brings down the total amount and value of raw materials brought to Poland. Therefore, the balance of mineral raw materials turnover will be higher than the balance taking into account these figures.
The total value of the raw materials exports amounted to PLN 40,421 million (USD 13,418 million) in 2010 and was by 49.13 % higher than in the previous year. The imports value amounted to PLN 74,302 million (USD 24,576 million) and was by 35.44 % higher than in 2009. The exports-imports turnover balance was still negative and amounted to PLN 33,881 million in 2010.
The highest values of imports, causing negative balance of the turnover value, related to such raw materials as: crude oil (50.05 % of the total import value), petroleum products (17.99 %), hard coal and coal derivatives (7.01 %), iron (4.69 %), aluminium (4.22 %) and copper ores (2.35 %), potassium raw materials (1.36 %), dimension and crushed stones (1.14 %), nitrogen and multi-component fertilizers (1.09 %), silica and silica compounds (0.83 %), refractory materials (0.35 %) and insulating materials (0.33 %).
The most important, regarding the value of the raw materials exports in 2010, were: hard coal and coal derivatives (26.08 % of the total import value), raw materials and products of copper metallurgy (20.97 %), petroleum products (17.54 %), iron and ferroalloys (6.49 %), silver (5.81 %), nitrogen and multi-component fertilizers (4.49 %), aluminium (3.60 %), salt and sodium compounds (1.62 %) and insulating materials (1.38 %).
Figure 1 shows the structure of exports and imports in Poland, i.e. total values and shares of various groups of commodities in the international turnover.
Table 2 shows imports-exports balance values of particular mineral raw materials groups in last 10 years.
Table 3 shows imports-exports balance quantity of particular mineral raw materials groups in last 10 years.
The variation of the imports-exports balance by value and quantity for the last 10 years is shown in Figure 2. The quantity balance has been declining till 2004 and in the 2006-2008 period. There were only two years when it rose – 2005 and 2009. In 2010 it declined to -33.53 million tonnes. The value balance has been quite constant in 2002-2004, then it decreased substantially. It amounted to PLN -39,15 billion (the lowest value in the analyzed period) in 2008, then it rose to PLN -27.75 billion in 2009 and declined to PLN -33.88 billion in 2010.
The percentage contributions of the particular groups of raw materials to the value of exports and imports in 2006-2010 are presented in Figures 3 and 4. The contributions to the export value have been oscillating in all mineral groups in last five years. Industrial minerals export was pretty constant in the analyzed period, whereas within other two groups there were significant changes observed. The highest increase of the turnover value with respect to the previous year in the analysed period took place in 2009 in metallic raw materials exports. It was by 8.0 %. The highest decrease of the turnover value (by 6.9 %) was observed also within metals export - in 2008. Fuels are still the most important group in Polish exports value mainly thanks to the petroleum products and hard coal exports (Fig. 3).
The contribution to the import value was stable only for industrial minerals in the preceding period of time. In contrast, it has been changing within other mineral groups. The highest increase took place within power raw materials import (by 2.9 % in 2008) and decrease within metallic raw materials (by 4.2 % in 2008). For both groups of mineral raw materials in the last three years import value was pretty constant (Fig. 4).
Regarding quantity of raw materials exports it can be seen that fuels export has been decreasing till 2009 and increased significantly in 2010 (by 5.35 million tonnes). Metallic raw materials export volume was quite constant in the analyzied period. Industrial minerals export was constant in 2006-2008 period of time, in 2009 there was a significant drop (by 2.2 million tonnes) and in 2010 export amounted to 6.24 million tonnes (Fig. 5).
Fuels import increased in 2007-2008, then has been constant and amounted to 43.4 million tonnes in 2010. Metallic raw materials import has been constant in th 2007-2008 period of time, then it dropped by 4.5 million tonness in 2009 and increased by 2.7 million tonnes in 2010. Industrial minerals import has been changing for the whole analyzed period and amounted to 13.4 million tonnes in 2010 (Fig. 6).
Tables given below show the comparison between export/import values (Table 4) and volumes (Table 5) in 2009-2010.
Total import value in 2010 increased by 35.44 % and export value by 49.13 % in comparison with 2009. The highest import value increase took place within metallic raw materials - by 45.95 %, the lowest within industrial raw materials - by 22.69 %.
The export value in 2010 increased significantly (by 49.13 %) in comparison with 2009. It rose by 63.10 % within fuels,
45.62 % within metallic raw materials and by 16.79 % within industrial raw materials.
Total import volume in 2010 increased by 18.17 % and export by 29.03 % in comparison with 2009.
The import volume increased by 44.59 % within metallic raw materials, by 23.02 % within industrial minerals and by 12.68 % within fuels.
The export volume increased significantly within all three groups of mineral raw materials (by 32.25 %, 31.09 % and 20.19 % respectively).
Directions of Polish export and import of mineral raw materials (divided into 3 main groups) are presented in the table. There where 25 most important countries selected (according to import/export value).
Regarding the exports directions, the highest value reached raw materials export to Germany. The export value to this country was PLN 11,780 million, which constituted 29.14 % of the total Polish raw materials exports value. Other important countries with significant contribution to the total Polish raw materials exports value were Czech Republic (9.23 %) and United Kingdom (6.00 %) (Fig. 7 a).
The major part of the mineral raw materials imports in 2010 came from Russia. The import value was PLN 41,909 million, which constitutes 56.40 % of the total mineral raw materials imports value in Poland. Other important countries were Germany (8.38 %) and Norway (4.34 %) (Fig. 7 b).
Prepared by: Marcin Tymiński