Limestones and marls for cement and lime industries
This section deals with deposits of limestones and marls exploited for use in lime and cement industries. Hard varieties of limestone used in production of dimension and broken stone are discussed in a separate section, similarly as lacustrine limestone (lacustrine chalk) and proper chalk raw material used in industries other than the cement and lime ones. Marly limestones and marls are used in the cement industry only.
Limestones used as raw material in the lime industry are pure limestones with high content of CaCO3. Such rocks also find use in the chemical and food industries and metallurgy. When used in the manufacture of cement clinker, they should be supplemented with addition of clay raw materials. Some soft limestone varieties and waste rock from quarrying are used in production of powdered calcium carbonate for reducing soil acidity in agriculture.
Limestones and marl raw materials for the cement and lime industries are quite common in various geological formations in southern and central Poland and some other regions. Most resources occur within four regions: świętokrzyskim, krakowsko-częstochowsko-wieluńskim, lubelskim i opolskim. In northern Poland Jurassic limestones were documented within the Barcin-Piechcin area near Inowrocław.
Limestone and marl raw materials for the cement and lime industries are quite common in various geological formations in southern and central Poland and some other regions. Limestone and marl deposits are explored down to the depth capabilities governed by the equipment and method limitations for open cast mining. According to economic criteria established for this group of deposits, overburden may be up to 15 m thick at the most and maximum proportion of overburden to deposit thickness should not exceed 0.3. An additional requirement introduced limestone deposits operating for the needs of the lime industry refers to the mean content of CaCO3 over 90 % in the whole vertical section of a given deposit.
Anticipated economic resources of limestones and marls amounted to 18,439.74 million tonnes - 12,792.89 million tonnes (69 %) within 71 deposits for cement industry and 5,646.85 million tonnes (31 %) within 117 deposits for lime industry.
Anticipated economic resources of limestones and marls for cement industry increased by 283.13 million tonnes in comparison with 2011. There were resources in the Krasocin deposit documented and the boundaries of the Tarnów Opolski-Wschód deposit were extended.
Anticipated economic resources of limestones for lime industry increased by 40.33 million tonnes – mainly due to new documented deposits: Ołowianka-1 and Sokołów – Kolonia and due to the extension of boundaries of the Ostrówka i Ołowianka and Tarnów Opolski-Wschód deposits.
Limestones and marls for cement industry deposits are presented on the map.
Anticipated economic resources of exploited deposits states for 32.3 % of total resources for cement industry and 33.9 % of total resources for lime industry.
Production of these raw materials is concentrated within three voivodeships: - Kujawsko-pomorskie (accounts for 17 % of domestic production); - Opolskie (21 %); Świętokrzyskie (44 %). Production of both raw materials amounted to 41.05 million tonnes in 2012 (decreased by 7.96 million tonnes – 2.98 million tonnes of limestones and marls for cement industry and 4.98 million tonnes of limestones for lime industry).
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of limestone and marl deposits explored for the needs of cement industry and Table 2 for lime industry.
The figure given below shows changes in resources and production of limestones and marls for the cement and lime industries in Poland in the years 1989-2012.
In a couple of deposits (Bratkowszczyzna, Kodrąb-Dmenin, Górażdże, Strzelce Opolskie I, Tarnów Opolski-Wschód, Bukowa and Gliniany-Stróża) both types of raw material occur.
Prepared by: Dariusz Brzeziński