Limestones and marls for cement and lime industries
This section deals with deposits of limestones and marls exploited for use in lime and cement industries. Hard varieties of limestone used in production of dimension and crushed stones are discussed in a separate section, similarly as lacustrine limestone (lacustrine chalk) and proper chalk raw material used in industries other than the cement and lime ones. Marly limestones and marls are used in the cement industry only.
Limestones used as raw material in the lime industry are pure limestones with high content of CaCO3 (>90 %). Such rocks also find use in the chemical and food industries and metallurgy. When used in the manufacture of cement clinker, they should be supplemented with addition of clay raw materials. Some soft limestone varieties and waste rock from quarrying are used in production of powdered calcium carbonate for reducing soil acidity in agriculture.
Limestones and marl raw materials for the cement and lime industries are quite common in various geological formations in southern and central Poland and some other regions. Most resources occur within four regions: świętokrzyski, krakowsko-częstochowsko-wieluński, lubelski and opolski. In northern Poland Jurassic limestones were documented within the Barcin-Piechcin area near Inowrocław.
Limestone and marl raw materials for the cement and lime industries are quite common in various geological formations in southern and central Poland and some other regions. Limestone and marl deposits are explored down to the depth capabilities governed by the equipment and method limitations for open cast mining. According to economic criteria established for this group of deposits, overburden may be up to 15 m thick at the most and maximum proportion of overburden to deposit thickness should not exceed 0.3. An additional requirement introduced limestone deposits operating for the needs of the lime industry refers to the mean content of CaCO3 over 90 % in the whole vertical section of a given deposit.
Anticipated economic resources of limestones and marls amounted in 2013 to 18,435.61 million tonnes including 12,794.68 million tonnes (69.4 %) within 70 deposits for cement industry and 5,640.93 million tonnes (30.6 %) within 119 deposits for lime industry.
In 2013, the anticipated economic resources of limestones and marls for cement industry increased by 1.79 million tonnes in comparison with the previous year. There were new boundaries and recalculated resources approved for Działoszyn-Trębaczew and Rudniki-Jaskrów deposits. There was only one – Celiny – deposit crossed out of “The balance…”.
The anticipated economic resources of limestones for lime industry decreased by 5.92 million tonnes mainly due to the output. There was Sosnowiec-Środula II deposit crossed out of “The balance…” in 2013.
Limestones and marls for cement industry deposits are presented on the map.
The anticipated economic resources of exploited deposits (deposits of operaiting mines and deposits exploited temporarily) states for 32.3 % of total resources for cement industry and 33.7 % of total resources for lime industry.
Production of these raw materials is concentrated within three Voivodeships: - Kujawsko-pomorskie (accounts for 16.1 % of domestic production); - Opolskie (19 %); Świętokrzyskie (46 %). Production of both raw materials amounted to 39.08 million tonnes in 2013 (decreased by 1.97 million tonnes – 2.05 million tonnes drop of production of raw materials for cement industry and 0.08 million tonnes growth of production of limestones for lime industry).
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of limestone and marl deposits explored for the needs of cement industry and Table 2 for lime industry.
The figure given below shows changes in resources and production of limestones and marls for the cement and lime industries in Poland in the years 1989-2013.
In a couple of deposits (Bratkowszczyzna, Bukowa, Gliniany-Stróża, Górażdże, Kodrąb-Dmenin, Krasocin, Strzelce Opolskie I and Tarnów Opolski-Wschód) both types of raw material occur.
Prepared by: Dariusz Brzeziński