Quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick
Sands are widely used in production of cellular concrete and bricks and sand lime blocks in the whole area of Poland. Raw material suitable for that production has to be sufficiently pure and fine-grained and well sorted. These requirements are met by Quaternary sands of glacial and fluvioglacial orgin and river and eolian sands. Sands most suitable for these purposes include mainly fluvioglacial and eolian sands characterized by high degree of roundness of grains and low content of extraneous matter.
According to criteria of Polish classification of reserves/resources adopted in 2005, exploitable quartz sand deposits require a minimum content of quartz grains (90 %), maximum content of silts (5 %), thickness not smaller than 2 m and the ratio of cover to deposit series not higher than 0.5.
It may be stated that accuracy of prospecting and exploration of these sand deposits has been satisfactory. The deposits are fairly evenly distributed throughout the whole area of the country, except for the Carpathian Mts. In the latter region, resources of sand deposits (especially quartz sands of good quality) appear clearly insufficient to cover the local needs.
Clastic rock raw materials occurence in Poland (inlcuding quartz sands for production of cellular concrete and lime-sand brick) is presented on the map.
Table 1 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of cellular concrete.
Resources of these sands are of the order of 142.79 million m3, remaining stable in comparison with previous year.
Production of quartz sands totaled 397 thousand m3, being 76 thousand m3 bigger than in the previous year.
Table 2 shows resources and the current state of exploration and development of quartz sands for production of lime-sand brick.
Resources of the sand deposits remain at the level of 260-280 million tonnes since quite a few years. In the year 2010, resources of quartz sands for production of lime-sand brick decreased (by 0.49 million m3) and amounted to 272.93 million m3.
In 2010, production of these quartz sands somewhat increased (by 54 thousand tonnes), to 615 thousand m3.
Figure 1 shows changes in resources and production of quartz sands for the manufacture of cellular concrete and Figure 2 – the same data for quartz sands for the manufacture of lime-sand brick.
Information on import and export of these commodities are placed in chapter "sand and gravel".
- B - for solid minerals - mine in building process, for fuels - prepared for exploitation or trial period of the exploitation
- E - exploited
- G - underground natural gas storage facilities
- M - deposit crossed out of the annual report of mineral resources during analized period
- P - deposit covered by preliminary exploration (in C2+D category, for fuels – in C category)
- R - deposit covered by detailed exploration (in A+B+C1 category, for fuels – in A+B category)
- Z - abandoned deposit
- T - deposit exploited temporarily
- K - change of the raw material in deposit
Prepared by: Alina Piotrowska